Introduction

Background
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia’s hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and it is now in the process of strengthening its democracy and transitioning to a free market economy after its 1992-1997 civil war. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace.
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Geography

Location
Central Asia, west of China

Geographic Coordinates
39 00 N, 71 00 E

Area
total: 143,100 sq km; land: 142,700 sq km; water: 400 sq km

Area Comparative
slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land Boundaries
total: 3,651 km; border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime Claims
none (landlocked)

Climate
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation Extremes
lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m; highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m

Natural Resources
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

Land Use
arable land: 6.52%; permanent crops: 0.89%; other: 92.59% (2005)

Irrigated Land
7,200 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural Hazards
earthquakes and floods

Environment – Current Issues
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides

Environment – International Agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Notes
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR

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People

Population
7,320,815 (July 2006 est.)

Age Structure
0-14 years: 37.9% (male 1,396,349/female 1,375,168); 15-64 years: 57.4% (male 2,091,476/female 2,108,889); 65 years and over: 4.8% (male 154,162/female 194,771) (2006 est.)

Median Age
total: 20 years; male: 19.7 years; female: 20.4 years (2006 est.)

Population Growth Rate
2.19% (2006 est.)

Birth Rate
32.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death Rate
8.25 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net Migration Rate
-2.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex Ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female; under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female; 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female; 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female; total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate
total: 106.49 deaths/1,000 live births; male: 117.83 deaths/1,000 live births; female: 94.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth
total population: 64.94 years; male: 62.03 years; female: 68 years (2006 est.)

Total Fertility Rate
4 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS – People Living with HIV/AIDS
less than 200 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Deaths
less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality
noun: Tajikistani(s); adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic Groups
Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)

Religions
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi’a Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)

Languages
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write; total population: 99.4%; male: 99.6%; female: 99.1% (2003 est.)

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Government

Country Name
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan; conventional short form: Tajikistan; local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston; local short form: Tojikiston; former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Government Type
republic

Capital
Dushanbe

Administrative Divisions
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular – viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand); note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National Holiday
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)

Constitution
6-Nov-94

Legal System
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992); head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999); cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly; elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held November 2006); prime minister appointed by the president; Tajikistan held a constitutional referendum on 22 June 2003 that, among other things, set a limit of two seven-year terms for the president; election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote – Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%

Legislative Branch
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; all serve five-year terms); elections: last held 27 February and 13 March 2005 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held February 2010) and 25 March 2005 for the National Assembly (next to be held February 2010); election results: Assembly of Representatives – percent of vote by party – PDPT 74.9%, CPT 13.6%, Islamic Revival Party 8.9%, other 2.5%; seats by party – PDPT 51, CPT 5, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5; National Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA%; seats by party – PDPT 29, CPT 2, independents 3

Judicial Branch
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)

Political Parties and Leaders
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir KARAKULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV]; Islamic Revival Party [Said Abdullo NURI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOYEV]; People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Abdualim GHAFFOROV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders
unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Party of Justice [Abdurahim KARIMOV]; People’s Unity Party [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Socialist Party [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; note – this is the SPT that was disbanded, another pro-government SPT (listed above under political parties) replaced it; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]

International Organization Participation
AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic Representation in the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Hamrohon ZARIPOV; chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037; telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090; FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091

Diplomatic Representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard E. HOAGLAND; embassy: 10 Pavlova Street, Dushanbe, Tajikistan 734003; mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189; telephone: [992] (372) 21-03-48, 21-03-52, 24-15-60; FAX: [992] (372) 21-03-62, 51-00-29

Flag Description
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe

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Economy

Overview
Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 6% of the land area is arable; cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Even though 64% of its people continue to live in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, but experienced a slight drop in its growth rate to 8% in 2005 from 10.6% in 2004. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises would further increase productivity. Tajikistan’s economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, widespread unemployment, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002, including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan’s $300 million debt to Russia. Tajikistan ranks third in the world in terms of water resources per head. A proposed investment to finish the hydropower dams Rogun and Sangtuda would substantially add to electricity production. If finished, Rogun will be the world’s tallest dam.

GDP (purchasing power parity)
$8.826 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate)
$1.943 billion (2005 est.)

GDP – real growth rate
8% (2005 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)
$1,200 (2005 est.)

GDP – composition by sector
agriculture: 24%; industry: 21%; services: 55% (2005 est.)

Labor Force
3.7 million (2003)

Labor Force – By Occupation
agriculture 67.2%, industry 7.5%, services 25.3% (2000 est.)

Unemployment Rate
12% (2004 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line
64% (2004 est.)

Household Income or Consumption by Percentage Share
lowest 10%: 3.2%; highest 10%: 25.2% (1998)

Distribution of Family Income – Gini Index
34.7 (1998)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices)
8% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed)
19.1% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget
revenues: $442.3 million; expenditures: $542.6 million; including capital expenditures of $86 million (2005 est.)

Agriculture – Products
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

Industries
aluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Industrial Production Growth Rate
8.2% (2002 est.)

Electricity – Production
16.5 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity – Consumption
15.05 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity – Exports
3.874 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity – Imports
4.81 billion kWh (2004)

Oil – Production
354.8 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil – Consumption
25,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil – Exports
NA bbl/day

Oil – Imports
NA bbl/day

Natural Gas – Production
30 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural Gas – Consumption
1.4 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural Gas – Exports
0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural Gas – Imports
1.4 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current Account Balance
$-92 million (2005 est.)

Exports
$950 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports – Commodities
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles

Exports – Partners
Netherlands 41.4%, Turkey 15.3%, Uzbekistan 7.2%, Latvia 7.1%, Switzerland 6.9%, Russia 6.6% (2004)

Imports
$1.25 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports – Commodities
electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs

Imports – Partners
Russia 20.2%, Uzbekistan 14.2%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Azerbaijan 7.2%, US 6.7%, China 4.8%, Ukraine 4.5% (2004)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold
$195 million (2005 est.)

Debt – External
$888 million (2004 est.)

Economic Aid – Recipient
$67 million from US (2005)

Currency (Code)
somoni

Exchange Rates
Tajikistani somoni per US dollar – 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004), 3.0614 (2003), 2.7641 (2002), 2.3722 (2001)

Fiscal Year
calendar year

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Communications

Telephones – Main Lines in Use
245,200 (2004)

Telephones – Mobile Cellular
47,600 (2003)

Telephone System
general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network; domestic: cable and microwave radio relay; international: country code – 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations – 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat

Radio Broadcast Stations
AM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)

Television Broadcast Stations
13 (2001)

Internet Country Code
.tj

Internet Hosts
63 (2005)

Internet Users
5,000 (2005)

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Transportation

Airports
45 (2005)

Airports – With Paved Runways
total: 17; over 3,047 m: 2; 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4; 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5; 914 to 1,523 m: 3; under 914 m: 3 (2005)

Airports – With Unpaved Runways
total: 28; 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1; 914 to 1,523 m: 1; under 914 m: 26 (2005)

Pipelines
gas 541 km; oil 38 km (2004)

Railways
total: 482 km; broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge (2004)

Roadways
total: 27,767 km (2000)

Waterways
200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2006)

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Military

Military Branches
Ground Troops, Air and Air Defense Troops, Mobile Troops (2005)

Military Service Age and Obligation
18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation – two years (2004)

Manpower Available for Military Service
males age 18-49: 1,556,415 (2005 est.)

Manpower Fit for Military Service
males age 18-49: 1,244,941 (2005 est.)

Manpower Reaching Military Service Age Annually
males: 87,846 (2005 est.)

Military Expenditures – Dollar Figure
$35.4 million (FY01)

Military Expenditures – Percent of GDP
3.9% (FY01)

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Transnational Issues

Disputes – International
boundary agreements signed in 2002 cede 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to China in return for China relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km of Tajikistani lands, but neither state has published maps of ceded areas and demarcation has not yet commenced; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

Illicit Drugs
major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium)

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